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Knee

Arthritis of Knee Joint

Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint. This surface can wear out for a number of reasons; often the definite cause is not known.

Ligament Tears

Ligaments are tough fibrous bands of connective tissue that support and connect adjoining bones together. These are strong, flexible structures that provide stability to the joints. The ligaments hold the bones together, in normal alignment, and prevent abnormal movements of the joint.

Meniscal Tears

Meniscal tears are one of the most frequently reported injuries to the knee joint. The meniscus is a C-shaped fibro cartilaginous structure in the knee incompletely covering the surface of the tibia where it articulates with the femur. It consists of the medial meniscus, on the inner part of the knee, and the lateral meniscus on the outer aspect of the knee.

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis, also known as “jumper’s knee” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg. Patellar tendinitis usually results from repetitive trauma or overuse, particularly from sports activities involving jumping such as basketball or volleyball. Therefore, this condition is also known as jumper’s knee. This condition may also occur because of an acute injury to the tendon that has not healed properly.

Patellofemoral Instability

Patellofemoral Instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations, also called subluxations. This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place. Once damaged, these soft structures are unable to keep the patella (knee cap) in position.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Patellofemoral pain syndrome, also referred to as PFPS, is one of the most commonly reported knee problems, accounting for one in four knee complaints seen by Orthopedist’s. To learn more about patellofemoral pain syndrome, let us first learn about normal knee anatomy and function.

Cartilage Injury

Articular cartilage is a complex avascular (no blood supply) tissue which consists of cells called chondrocytes suspended in a collagenous matrix. It appears as a smooth, shiny, white tissue at the ends of the bones which come in contact with each other to form a joint.

This cartilage is subjected to the normal wear and tear and may sometimes get damaged because of injury causing pain and impaired function.

Bursitis

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac that is found between skin, muscles, tendons and bones. It lubricates and acts as a cushion in decreasing the friction, rubbing and irritation between these parts with movement. Bursitis refers to the inflammation or swelling of the bursa. It can affect the joints such as the hip, knee, elbow, shoulder and ankle. Bursitis is most commonly seen in adults of over 40 years.

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